Humanity has been needing to go from one point to another for different purposes throughout history. This need has been the main reason for the need for transportation of trade and battles during the subsequent periods, while the hunter – gatherer societies in prehistoric times were a condition to reach nutrients.
The transportation that needs to be examined periodically is performed with the use of the paths left behind by large herds of animals migrating at first; Subsequently, the built-in societies have evolved into lines with a primitive level of direction and milestones, which are evident that they trade among each other. Archaeological studies have found that the road segments from M. Ö to the present period between 4000 and 2000 years from different periods, were concluded that they created with each other and that they were interwoven road networks. Starting from Europe and crossing across Anatolia to China and India in Asia, the Silk Road, the Spice Road, the King's Road, the copper road lines are connected to each other as shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Historical road routes forming the Silk Road
In the period of the Roman Empire, the foundations of modern road networks have begun to be taken with increasing conquests. The first modern road network evaluated as "The Roman Road" BC Built in 300. The main reason for this path is to be called the foundation of modern roads is to be constructed by adopting the logic "plan first, then build". Perhaps the most important approach on a classical Roman road is that it has a layered structure (fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Layered structure of the typical Roman road
The development of the boundaries of the Roman Empire is linked to the progress in the construction of road networks. Figure 3 shows the road network of the Roman Empire in the military and economically most effective period. The Romans knew that progress in military fetuses was only dependent on the power of logistical support from the back of the army. For this reason, as the Roman Empire evolves, it has developed as a way to do so.
Fig. 3. Roman Empire Road network
The first engineering book on road construction, although the foundations of road networks in Modern sense, was skipped before the Milat, but 18. Written by the French engineer Hubert Gauthier in YY. The booklet titled "Traité de la construction des routes" (examination on the construction of roads) contained information about the road coverings that should be constructed with different layers. This information has often examined the productions for the use of blocks or crushed stones in the construction of roads.
Flexible superstructure road coverings made using bitumen materials (asphalt roads), however, were introduced in the early 19th century and then developed and came to the present day.
In recent years, increased environmental awareness, decreasing raw materials and resources have allowed the development of materials and additives that make recycling possible in road coating technologies. These materials, as well as the production, mixing and reduction of the temperature of the application and the service life of the finished coatings to be improved in the form of recycling described as a re-use He's out.
Given all the work involved in this wide range of historical processes, the primary objective is to try to get access from one point to another in the most comfortable and concise way; With the technology developing in recent years, this convenient and quick access can be done without damaging the environment. In all areas where the speed is so important, other types of transportation are evolving in parallel to the development of highways.
Assist. Prof. Dr. Ismail Cagri Görkem,
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Engineering, Nşaat Engineering Department, Department of Transportation, Mugla-Türkiy To