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Status of Civil Engineering Education in Turkey

Status of Civil Engineering Education in Turkey

Considering the number of universities in Turkey as well as the number of graduates; the level of education, the compliance of the Information Mass and ABET criteria is an issue that should be examined for Turkey;

  1. The ability to apply math, basic sciences and engineering knowledge, theoretical teachings in the Faculties of Engineering are more credited than practical practices. Practical practice is less than the one that most universities are going to be absent from. As a false opinion, i don't know. practical applications are only perceived as "internships".
  2. Experiment design, experimenting, data analysis and data interpretation capability; Construction Laboratory of many universities is inadequate as technical equipment. In addition, laboratory courses are given at an inadequate level as a loan. Experiments are often carried out by faculty members. Therefore, the students' practices in experimenting have not developed.
  3. The ability to design a system, components, or solution methods with the desired features; Since the education system is largely "memorized", the ability to combine different components with original practices is generally poor.
  4. Ability to work within an interdisciplinary group; Since the trainings are based on one-axis and one branch, learning/study discipline has not developed with different disciplines. Homework, project work in this context; free from group work.
  5. Identification, modeling, solving engineering problems; Problems are understood through memorization rather than analytical pottery-clan, in this way the engineer's ability to define, model and solve is dulled.
  6. Being aware of professional and ethical responsibilities; Economic bottleneck and increased unemployment have prevented the growth of new jobs, and engineers have had to work at relatively low wages. Such a situation; With ethical problems, he killed professionalism.
  7. Ability to communicate effectively; 16 in the concept of The Mass of Knowledge. The issue of "Communication", which constitutes the queue, is perhaps the most lacking of engineering programs. "Is he a civil engineer with very good technical knowledge, a moderate communication?" or "Is he a civil engineer with a very good communication, a moderate technical knowledge?" The answer to that question makes a lot of sense. It is also a fact that Big Construction companies are interested in the second question. Especially if we add to all of this the need to know at least one foreign language in communication.
  8. To create a wide ba-winter angle that can understand the impact of engineering solutions in a universal and social context; The lack of inventions of master and doctoral engineers who can be counted competently in the field shows the level of horizon and vision in this regard. Thesis stand on dusty shelves in libraries, the lack of integration with industry, technology, management organizations clearly demonstrates the veil of the issue.
  9. Defining requirements, the ability to try to learn for life; An engineer who deserves an "Engineering Degree" after four years of engineering training can sign many engineering projects today. This is the case; undermining lifelong learning.
  10. To know about applicable regulations; regulations are not adequately addressed in universities. In this, with the lack of practical practices, the lack of an orientation towards expertise is also effective. When civil engineers graduate, they do not fully know the regulations on the subject because they are not experts in any subject matter. In addition, today, the engineering profession is still organized on the basis of the Law on Engineering and Architecture no. 3458 dating back to 1938. This law, which is sufficient to have received a diploma in the execution of professional activity, points to an understanding contrary to the needs of the age.
  11. The ability to use the modern engineering tools, skills and technique required for engineering applications; Major changes in information technologies require faster and more analysis of needs. The UK-based Construction Industry Information Association (CICA) said it has more than 1,650 computer software serving the construction sector. However, the number of computer software taught in Civil Engineering trainings in our country does not exceed the fingers of one hand.

Results

As with many engineering sciences, external factors (globalization, population growth, global warming, etc.), technological advances (new computational techniques and algorithms, robotics, intelligent systems, etc.) and new approaches (more diverse tasks in life, advanced virtue thoughts and professional ethics etc.) It influenced the vision of Civil Engineering. The rapid depletion of energy resources and increased population slated for sustainable projects, particularly in the determination of conversion and new energy sources. The importance of interdisciplinary studies is increasing day by day, and topics such as expertise, professionalism and professional ethics are being discussed in the 21st century. Century's engineering arguments are becoming more and more pronounced. In order for Turkey to remain no stranger to these arguments, the basic gains in engineering education must be reviewed and made fit for the age. In particular, compliance with ABET criteria is important in this respect. In order for the individual to internalize his technical and professional achievements in the civil engineering profession, the Professional Chambers has an obligation to carry out themes in accordance with the philosophy of lifelong learning. Time changes demand as well as science. The civil engineering profession will be greatly affected by this change, given the relatively large volume of the sector in the economy, cost-benefit and supply-demand balances. It will come even in a programmable world; it will always be open to surprises. AI, Cyberspace, Space Cities, change when you think; In the 1997 film Men In Black, it is summed up by Tommy Lee Jones; "Until a thousand years ago, everyone knew the world as the center of space. Five hundred years ago, the world was known as flat. And you knew we were alone on this planet yesterday. Imagine what you'll know for tomorrow!"

Hagia sophia

Hagia Sophia is one of the most famous places in Istanbul.  

Set on the edge of east and west, full of domes and minarets, Istanbul was the favorite city of Ian Fleming, author of James Bond.

Some scenes of Bond films such as Love from Russia, The World Is Not Enough and Skyfall were filmed in Istanbul.

One of the most famous monuments of this city is Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia, which has been used as a museum for 80 years, has previously served as a center of worship for more than 1,400 years.

Byzantine Emperor 1. This building was established as a church in 537 at the behest of Jüstinyen. Jüstinyen wanted to leave behind a work that transcended the roman artifacts.

When the church was finished and first entered, the emperor said, "Ah Solomon! I'm past you."

When Fatih Sultan Mehmet took Istanbul from the Byzantines in 1453, Hagia Sophia was still the largest structure in the world.

After the conquest, it was immediately converted into a mosque. He was inspired by the Blue Mosque, which was later established next to him.

Now let's go through individual episodes of Hagia Sophia.

Emperor Gate

It is the largest gate of Hagia Sophia. Byzantine emperors and their relatives used to enter the church through this door. According to a rumor, it's made of the wooden slabs that are left behind by Noah's Ark.

It is known that Emperor Heraklius went to Eastern Anatolia in the seventh century to search for this ship. On the door, you see one of the most beautiful mosaics of Hagia Sophia, the mosaic of Jesus, which is omnipotent.

Byzantine emperors would have been coronations in this round marble area. After the Roman Empire split into East and Western Rome in the fourth century, the Byzantines saw themselves as the natural representative of ancient Rome.

After the split, the Byzantine in the east lasted a thousand years longer than western Rome.

Mosaics

There are magnificent mosaics at the top of Hagia Sophia. One of the most impressive is the 11th century. It's a portrait of the Empress Zoe in the 19th century.

Zoe, who had her first marriage at the age of 50, had three husbands. She is said to have died of poisoning from her first husband and married her second husband on the same day. The mosaics have been replaced according to each new husband.

Dome

It is the architecturally largest heritage dome of Hagia Sophia. The dome was intended to be much larger and higher than its predecessors.

In an earthquake in 558, the dome was completely destroyed. In the dome, supported by 40 supports, you will see a verse from the Sura Nur in the Qur'an today.

Sultan's Lodge

During the Ottoman period, Hagia Sophia was transformed into a complex. One of the key additions to the building was the 18th century. It was the Sultan's Lodge, which was founded in the 19th century. The Sultan could worship here without being seen.

Sweating Column

Although Hagia Sophia is not used for worship today, it is the first time that the 1st Century Man has been able to do so. Jüstinyen continues to experience a superstition from his time. Legend has it that when you put your thumb in the small hole in the copper part of the 'sweating column', if your finger comes wet, you get rid of all diseases.

Self-Healing in Cemented Composites

Self-Healing in Cemented Composites 

The most consumed material in the world after water is concrete. Every year, approximately 14 billion cubic meters of concrete is used to build new structures. This corresponds to two cubic meters of concrete per year for every person living on Earth. However
A larger increase in concrete production is predicted to occur in the coming years with effects such as industrialization and population growth. This further cements the place of concrete, which is almost unquestionably popular in building materials, in our lives.
There are many reasons below such intense use of concrete. Compared to other building materials, the abundant and widespread availability of raw materials, easy to supply and economical, easy-to-shape fresh concrete, no need for skilled labor, high pressure resistance, etc. these reasons are considered in these reasons. However, just because concrete is a common and long-time material does not mean that it is an excellent material in all respects; concrete is a material with low strength and deformation capacity under towing, showing crispy behavior under load, in other words, the damage tolerance of concrete is low. This makes concrete and reinforced concrete structures resistant to time-dependent effects. This is simple to express, but its economic effects are dramatic. For example, the maintenance costs of existing bridges in the United States are $5.2 billion annually. The budget for rebuilding these bridges can reach up to $200 billion. In the UK, the total budget for the construction and construction industries

45% are spent on maintenance and repair costs. In Europe, a budget of $2 billion a year is only used for the maintenance of bridges, while for the entire construction infrastructure, this amount is $20 billion. The fact that maintenance and repair costs are so high has raised the question of how these costs can be eliminated, especially in recent years, the scientists who have been researching building materials have raised the question of how to eliminate these costs.
In this context, many researchers focused on studies on whether concrete and similar cement composites can improve their damage without an external effect. At the point reached in the studies, it has been shown that spontaneous healing can be achieved in many different ways. Some of these methods use empty fibers for spontaneous healing, chemical micro-encapsulation, bacterial-based biological healing, use of expanding chemicals, use of shape memory materials, use of mineral additives and self-healing it can be counted as a self-healing mechanism, which is activated by controlled narrow micro cracks. Each of these methods has the advantage and disadvantage over others. However, almost all of them require that some materials that normally do not need to be found in concrete are placed in concrete only to ensure spontaneous healing. If a type of spontaneous healing (internal self-healing) that does not require any special material for self-healing, it is conditional that the width of the cracks is too narrow. Large cracks are more difficult to close completely than narrow cracks, even if they heal faster because they allow products to fill cracks to enter the crack more easily. In this case, cracks such as concrete- in-width uncontrolled materials can only heal completely if they are damaged under very low loads, i.e. if they provide other necessary conditions only when narrow cracks are found in the inside.

The first of these shorts is enough cement, volatile ash, ground high hazelnut slag, etc. in concrete as soon as the crack occurs. mineral additives with binding characteristics. Although this requirement is an easy requirement to provide, it is difficult to restrict the cracks openings in the concrete. In recent years, however, prof. A fiber-reinforced composite material found by Dr. Victor Li has a controlled narrow crack openness and has a high amount of binding. This material is called NEngineered Cementitious Composites, i.e. Designed Cement composites" (TCC), and has been continuously developed by many scientists over the years. This material is designed with a different approach than other cemented composites, and the interaction of each component in it not only with its own characteristics, but also with other components is taken into account during design. TCC's design approach is referred to as micromechanical-based design and, as required by this approach, the TCC contributes a mineral with a large amount of binding properties within it.
Regardless of the amount of the load under mechanical loading, crack widths remain at the level of 100 micrometers, or one-tenth of a millimeter, and unlike many cemented composites such as concrete, it is not crispy under loads, but almost like a metallic material show bayonet behavior. However, under service loads, it acts as completely concrete. Because of this feature, it is called flexible concrete.

Controlled cracks and abundant mineral additives give the material the ability to recover easily in other cemented composites. Internal self-healing can occur by many different mechanisms. In general, spontaneous healing behavior in the TCC occurs chemically. Two different chemical self-healing mechanisms co-star in the TCC. The first is the carbonization mechanism. Carbon dioxide reacts with water in a humid environment, forming bicarbonate and/or carbonate, and eventually the calcium ions filtered from hydration products react with them, creating calcium carbonate in the crack and closing the crack. However, calcium hydroxide, which is exposed during hydration of cement, and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can also react directly to calcium carbonate. The carbonization mechanism manifests itself as a white residue on the crack. Another mechanism of spontaneous healing, also known as secondary hydration, rereacts with the water of the binding materials in the concrete, with the gel called csh gel and which gives the resistance to cement to be switched off. In this case, the environment should be found to have a mineral additive with a binding feature that has not previously reacted. The volatile ash or ground high oven slag, which is abundant in the TCC, works exactly that way. Another hydration product contained in cementcomposite, calcium hydroxide, water and mineral additives fill the crack formed by entering the rejection.in this way there are many EXAMPLES of CT SC where spontaneous healing is achieved. And both mechanical tests and indirect methods have proven experimentally that self-healed samples have regained their old properties as if they had never cracked and never damaged.

Crack formation in cemented composites is almost inevitable and has many negative effects, especially durability problems. In particular, the fact that the structures are not able to complete the expected service life or the short service life expectancy is almost entirely dependent on the formation of cracks and its economic effects are enormous. In this respect, self-healing of cracks seems incredible in practice for the moment, but it has been shown to be scientifically possible and will enter our lives in the near future. Especially in our country, where the earthquake threat and the construction sector is one of the locomotive sectors, such scientific developments are supported by the opportunity and began to be applied in our country before it is implemented in other countries as a country it will enable us to come to the fore with a stronger, more permanent and more innovative construction.

How to Tunnel?

How to Tunnel?

In major cities, increased population, requirements and heavy traffic conditions require the construction of underground structures such as subways, highways, water and sewer tunnels. Engineers and project planners can plan excavations of these underground structures by setting a excavation method suitable for different rock formations, taking into account the primary constraints. The excavation method is expressed by its selection.   Tunnel diameter affects many factors related to formation, machine or project. However, when excavating these shallow tunnels, which are generally opened on rock or ground, the classical excavation method is preferable to the machine, which is among the drilling blasting or modern methods. The excavation with the machine is safe.  Since the environment is not covered by blasting, fortifications are made easier and more effective.  Labor costs are low. Since the peer-sized pass is obtained, pass transplantation is more efficient. Excavation, fortification and pass transplantation can be done independently and at the same time. However, when deciding how to tunnel with mechanical excavation, some questions need to be answered:

  1. a) Is the tunnel opening in the city?

If the tunnel is in the city, drilling blasting and digging are limited because it causes psychological problems on humans and causes low yield, as well as building and superstructure damage. It cannot be used except in mandatory circumstances. If it is mandatory, local blasting is performed without a strong effect.

  1. b) Can the initial investment costs be covered?

Today, full-front edifying machines (CMs) are $1 million per m. The cost of investing in the excavator machine alone is around $8 m, considering the urban subway and other purpose tunnels are 7-8 m diameter. The impact of this machine on the cost per m in a 1500m tunnel is $5335, and this value will be significantly higher when other costs are added. Considering partial-fronted machines, their prices vary depending on their weight and range from $1-2 million. In the excavations, which can be considered semi-mechanized and carried out using the New Austrian Tunneling method, the penetrating jumbos and hks, which are replaced by a crusher unit, can also be used. Their prices range from 50 000 to $200,000.

  1. c) Is the tunnel long enough?

Pakes, which must open a tunnel of at least 1500 m for the tunnel to be economical and to be economical in order to make the tunnel affordable using a machine with a high cost of initial investment, needs to be designed as 1991 grows and formation solidifies; this will increase initial investment costs. However, if the tunnel length is too high, a more econonomic excavation will be done because the unit cost will have little effect.

  1. d) How long does the tunnel be completed?

This is a title directly associated with tunnel length. If the tunnel contains many connecting tunnels less than 1500 m and between 1500 m and is wanted to be finished in 1-2 years, cbm to be produced and its mounting and disassembly times can sometimes take 1-2 years or more. In such cases, with small and cheap machines that can be obtained more easily, for example, many wells can be drilled along the line with HKs and excavated with the principle that they are approaching each other by dragging tunnels forward and backward. If the tunnel is long, for example, if it is 5-6 km, it takes much longer to finish the excavation with this method. In this case, a fully fronted machine can be used as negativity will also be eliminated due to the cost per m in article b). With full-front edits, progress speeds can be approximately 20-25 m per day. In some projects in the past, it is known that excavations are carried out with progress speeds up to 50-60 m per day with the appropriate ness of the kayarock environment. CBmS can be produced for all kinds of rock environments today. In fact, even in Istanbul, where there are formations with very different mechanical characteristics along the line, multi-purpose machines have been designed and excavations in every environment have been possible.

Kapalıçarşı

The construction of the Grand Bazaar was completed in 1461 by Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror and completed in the same year. The bazaar has an area of 45,000 square meters and has nearly 4000 shops.

there are 64 streets, 17 inns and 22 doors. There are 4 basic doors that open from these doors to the bedestens. These include: Sahafs are Zennels, Jewellers, Takkeci. The remaining doors are named after the market in that area or the neighborhood where it was opened.

The bazaar, which served as both production and marketing in the past, has lost its part with the disappearance of various crafts today. The bazaar, which has not lost its popularity, welcomes millions of visitors throughout the year. Kilim is also eye-catching with its coffee and jewellery store, which is suitable for the modern shopping system of the bazaar. 

Despite the great fires of the bazaar which is not unique in the world, the fact that it has survived its architecture and function to this day reveals the durability and functionality of the building.

The bazaar, where more than 20,000 people work and thousands of people visit every day, is in one of istanbul’s centrally located locations, making transportation very easy.

CARBON FOOTPRINT

CARBON FOOTPRINT IS THE TOTAL GREENHOUSE VETERAN'S ORDER PRODUCED TO DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY SUPPORT HUMAN ACTIVITIES.

It is usually expressed in equivalent ton carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, when you drive a car, the vehicle's engine consumes fuel that produces a certain amount of CO2, depending on driving distance and fuel consumption. When you heat your home with oil, gas or coal, you produce CO2. Even if you heat your home with electricity, a certain amount of CO2 may have been released during the production of electrical energy. When you buy food and goods, some CO2 is released in the production of food and products. Your carbon footprint is the sum of all CO2 emissions you cause in your various activities over a given period of time. Usually the carbon footprint is calculated for a year. We can divide the carbon footprint into primary carbon footprint and secondary carbon footprint. Primary Carbon Footprint Primary carbon footprint is a measure of carbon gas emissions caused by direct actions by individuals. The biggest factor affecting the primary carbon footprint is fuel consumption for transport and energy production.

Here are some examples of the effects of fuels burned on different types of transport on carbon footprint. Short-haul (less than 463 km) flights in air transport emission 257 g / km OF CO2, while long-haul flights emit 113 g/km CO2. In land transport, there is co2 emissions of 109 g /km per kilometer for each passenger. This amount is 280 g / km CO2 in trucks, 175 g / km CO2 in light commercial vehicles, 127 g / km CO2 in newly registered passenger cars, 116 g / km CO2 in trains, 92 g / km CO2 emissions in hybrid electric vehicles. In maritime transport, CO2 emissions per kilometer for passengers by ferry are around 0.22 kg. However, these rates may vary depending on the type of ship used

Ways to Reduce Primary Carbon Footprint
1. Use public transport as much as possible
2. Regular vehicle maintenance
3. Using vehicles with low fuel consumption
4. Walking or cycling over short distances
5. Using renewable energy sources such as solar, wind
6. Make the most of daylight as possible
BC Payattention to thermal insulation in homes and businesses

secondary Carbon Footprint
secondary carbon footprint is the amount of emissions resulting from the consumption of products and services. Many organizations offer carbon footprint calculators to the public and private companies, and some organizations have calculated the carbon footprints of many products. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has mentioned paper, plastic, glass, tin cans, computers, carpets and tires. Australia has been interested in timber and other construction materials. Academics in Australia, Korea and the United States have discussed paved roads. Some nonprofits and academics have covered mailing letters and packages. Carnegie Mellon University has calculated the CO2 footprints of 46 major economic sectors in each of the eight countries.

Evaluating the package of some products is the key to finding a carbon footprint. The most important way to determine the carbon footprint is to look at the materials used to make the item. For example, a juice box is made of aseptic cardboard, beer can made of aluminum, and some water bottles are made of glass or plastic. The bigger the size, the bigger the carbon footprint.
A study conducted in England looked at the diets of the British people and predicted carbon footprint scars depending on their diet. Daily average carbon footprint; for those who consume too much meat
7.19 kg for medium-sized meat drinkers
5.63 kg for those who consume small amounts of meat
4.67 kg, 3.91 kg for fish drinkers and 3.81 kg for vegetarians. The carbon footprint of different textile materials varies significantly according to a wide range of factors- what. Textile production studies in Europe, co2 emissions per kilo of material at the point of purchase by a consumer; 7 in cotton, 5.43 in nylon, 5.55 in PET and 5.48 in wool.

Construction Sector
The cement industry accounts for approximately 5% of global CO2 emissions. Cement is the main component of concrete, which forms the foundations and structures of the buildings in which we live and work. Concrete is the second most consumed substance on Earth after water. On average, every year, three tons of concrete are consumed by every person on the planet.

While "cement" and "concrete" are often used interchangeably, concrete is actually the final product made of cement. The main component of cement is limestone. To produce cement, limestone and other clay-like materials are heated in an oven at 1400°C and then ground to form a lumpy, solid substance called clinker. The clinker is then combined with gypsum to form cement.
Energy and emission density are high depending on the extreme temperature required for cement production. Producing a ton of cement requires 400 kg of energy equivalent to coal and produces about one ton of CO2. Given its high emissions and critical importance to society, cement has an important place to reduce CO2 emissions.

Ways to Reduce Secondary Carbon Footprint
1. Not to buy products from distant countries
2. Not to consume overpackaged products
3. Throwing paper, plastic and glass waste into recycling bins

Interview with Ersan Güray Hocamız

1) can you tell us briefly about yourself and your work?

I came to the world in Kocaeli in the summer of 1978. We were there because of my parents ' civil servant. I spent a small fraction of my childhood in Gölcük, in Degirmendere. When we were kids, the whole place was Nuts. The owner of the vineyard, without seeing the cherry, plum, quince trees, Then came the owner of the remote connection, an announcement came from one of the children: "the owner of the vineyard comes, run away!", we Ran. We had these fruits in our homes, but it was more fun to be in those gardens as a kid. We used to ride on the beach with our bikes, fishing on the Pier. I was not very social, except for my criminal incidents of childhood, and I was generally introverted. I used to read the books I found at home, and there were two volumes that I loved so much: "why-how-how", I made rockets out of pharmaceutical tubes, but they took two steps at the Most. The engine that I ripped out of the old Grundig tape from the mother was very interesting, the years ended without a fatal accident with electric Shock.  After I finished middle school, i left. I went to a bigger place, I was in Istanbul with more traffic, crowds of people, and the second bridge that ended that year.  I've met new people, I've read a lot of Western classics. My desire for learning and insight was very high, especially I was very interested in science and Mathematics. My school was close to Boğaziçi university, and my desire to discover it felt more as I walked into this university's bosphorus-facing Park. Then my path fell to Metu. I'm The one who sees this learning from childhood as Fun.

2) What factors have been in your choice of civil engineering?

As a child, we used to build houses from the mud, small villages with waterways among Them. We used the tree branches as Reinforcement. At that time, we had a sense of how a twig was providing support to the mass of mud that it was holding, but not understanding the working principle of this composite formation, but the way that human beings perceive nature First. We couldn't predict the fact that one day We'd be studying civil engineering when we were building our first primitive mud houses. Civil Engineering was a very prestigious profession in those years, just as it still is, but my personal opinion is that it is not a name that deserves prestige, it should not be, all types of engineers are prestigious, as well as having high human values If he can, if he can, he can judge and manage, every engineer is Prestigious.

3) What profession would you prefer if you could go back to the past?

again, I would choose academics, learning, practicing, Teaching and producing knowledge is the right profession for Me. Maybe I'd be more suited to study physics as a Branch. nevertheless, with the knowledge and experience that I have gained so far, I can approach problems and facts as a Physicist.

4) What was the most difficult course when you were a student?

Maybe you're not used to hearing this, but there was no lesson I was struggling with, just lessons that didn't interest Me. To learn a new topic, we need imagination and motivation to create a new thought.

5) What difficulties have you encountered until you are in your position?

I was mostly suffering from unemployment. There were times when I didn't have a home, and I was in my office. We've always had neighbours, relatives, friends who don't understand Us. An academician can have many disclaasties in his youth Years. He has a research to pursue and his work with Passion. therefore, such a way of life can push us out of the life that others have been able to sustain.

6) What do you think about the future of the construction industry?

We need to look at the whole, not the sector, because the construction sector is also related to the steel industry, or the production of a material used in cement, with mines that produce gravel. The return of all these impellers requires a strong economy, otherwise the construction sector in developing countries, such as ours, is to keep the market Sharp. The market economy is doomed to be chronically ill in countries that are not able to produce raw material, such as ours, and who cannot make the workforce Happy. Apart from that, a few construction bosses have become very wealthy, but they do not connect this Sector.

7) what are the advantages and disadvantages of academics according to you?

first, let me tell you the disadvantages, academics require a lot of work, being diligent, Disciplined. We will also not get anywhere, without effort, by eliminating our personal needs, without protecting our supply, leaving Entrop to Itself. People who like to think, they turn these disadvantages into an advantage. The advantages of academicism are the hard work, the diligent, the Discipline. So they can think systematically, deeply, and produce Information.

8) What do you think are the deficiencies in civil engineering education?

There are deficiencies in civil engineering schools for practical applications. Students only observe the profession in summer internships. however, I am thinking that they should not graduate without producing a reinforced beam that can be used as a test specimen in the universities ' Laboratories. Civil engineering is not to fill every vacant place with concrete, but to the nature-compatible structures, energy usage is low, environment-integrated buildings, and these constructions are crucial to the civilization of the business safety is not necessarily should be emphasized.

9) What are the features that an academician must have and what should an engineer do to develop himself?

The Academy is also the name of the school of philosophy that Plato founded in the Old City of Athens. The philosophy comes from the combination of "phileosophia", the word "sophia", which means wisdom with "phileo" in terms of love in Greek. therefore, An academician should love Knowledge. secondly, An academician should also love to convey what he knows. Because it grows by transmitting universal information, EXPANDS. Academicism is a distinguished profession that provides social benefits such as doctoring, teaching and military service, and requires sacrifices for social Development. An engineer must be responsible for the field he/she works in, adopt his work, and take care of his work and Team.

10) What are your recommendations to civil engineering students?

Civil engineering student is a type of student who usually occurs at the end of the late 10 's and early 20s. Some of these students are largely busy with their lessons and are lacking in all other social cultural activities. Another part of these students is that they do not care about their lessons, but they spend these years by killing them with harmful habits or wasting time. I suggest they fulfill their responsibilities, so they go to class and do their Homework. I would advise them to read about the matters they are interested in. theatre, cinema, dance, Sports activities such as the busy and the place where they live, so your homeland is not enough now in relation to the world environment, sociology, economy and policy issues, ideas and ideas to create . Keep their horizons wide. Let the mind and conscience be free. never, ever leave the Truth. I'm Thanking You.

Ph.D. lecturer Ersan Güray,

Mugla Sitki Koçman university, Faculty of engineering, I Department of Civil engineering, Mechanical division, mugla- Turkey

Virtual reality in the construction sector

Virtual reality

Virtual reality is called environments that are simulated by computers. Most virtual reality environments consist of visual experiences acquired through a computer screen. In addition, some environments take advantage of other senses, such as hearing and movement.

Virtual reality in the construction sector

Speaking of virtual reality technology, we said the user's interaction with the virtual world. From here on, you can imagine that the development of this technology, as in all other sectors, is the perfect thing to do in the field of construction. Before we begin to imagine, let's examine the use of this technology in our sector. I want to put another short concept together: augmented reality. He entered Turkish in terms such as "extended reality" or "enriched reality". It is the version of virtual reality and is used in the construction industry and will have an important place in the future. With virtual reality solutions in the construction sector, we are now able to put a building in the project stage, virtual reality glasses With virtual reality technology, we are able to build it in the virtual world without a structure. We are able to test the human-equipment-structure interaction in a 3d virtual world.

 

this application; It means that time, loss of money and all other risks are reduced to zero. While solving a detail, designing a building element, assembling it, using a work machine, etc., each stage of construction can be rehearsed in the virtual world. " Can this profile be assembled here? Does this machine get in here? Does the pump grow here? "Simple examples of questions that come to mind, all phases from design to assembly can be tested in the virtual world. Project teams will be able to realize all the impropriety before moving on to the real design in the designed virtual world. Manufacturing teams will be able to produce more accurate productions in real life and to see and fix problems in advance thanks to the tests made in the virtual environment prior to manufacturing. Customers will be able to visit the virtual version of the structure before the construction, and will be able to see the final version at the beginning of the structure.

Augmented reality

Unlike virtual reality, augmented reality integrates into the digital world without tearing us apart from the real world. This gives a serious advantage in interactive presentations. Augmented reality is not yet fully behind the computer power, but in some applications it is not as capable of virtual reality, but with the advantage that it captures with real-world integration, it gives an advantage to a range of unique opportunities. For example With its originality, interaction, functionality and impressively, augmented reality provides very serious advantages for architectural and construction sectors. The augmented reality app, which uses the camera of tablets and smartphones to enrich the actual images reflected on the screen through virtual reality, brings the real world and the virtual world together to make users an interactive Experience. The augmented reality technology, where communication technologies specialists are also consensus today, is known as the latest mass information and communication platform following the mobile platform. Augmented reality; is considered as the latest trend of technology and is often voiced by experts who will not stop developing. Augmented reality technology, which is implemented through custom software applications on tablets and smartphones, shows the desired visuals, videos and materials with more real and all the sizes. The images and videos that were previously defined with the camera are presented to the user's knowledge of the project.

 

Ravi Kaushik

STEEL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

Steel conveyor systems exhibit certain advantages over reinforced concrete systems. High
exposed to earthquake loads at a minimum level due to their strength and design being light
the stays are one of these advantages. Tensile and pressure as material properties of steel
with lower tensile strength than materials with equivalent strength
can be considered as a good solution for non-performing systems.

The installation of steel elements on site or atelier manufacturing is fast.
Unlike reinforced concrete construction systems, installations in all conditions, except for unusual weather conditions
done. For this reason, construction times are short. Dismantling for any reason
this process can be carried out quickly if necessary and in addition,
it can be constructed with the same materials again with very little loss in the place. Great openings
systems that can not be passed by reinforced concrete building materials steel carriers
systems can be easily passed. Quality control of steel construction elements
Below. They are produced in factory conditions in accordance with standards and values. Homogeneous and
since it is an isotropic material, it exhibits its expected behavior and therefore
the error margin in static calculations is very low.

Buildings with steel conveyor systems, developed countries due to engineering applications find a lot of space in the building sector, but due to their high costs in our country
compared to buildings with reinforced concrete systems, they had a much smaller number of applications.
Statistically, the share of steel structures in some developed countries is 50% in Europe,
70% in America and 80% in Japan, while only 5%
It is around. Undoubtedly, these systems can be more economically dimensioned and built,
seismic performances of these structures are very high, such as our country active earthquake risk
and it is thus possible to prevent the occurrence of an earthquake
the damage will be reduced to the minimum level.

Besides, the point reached in science and technology in today's civilization, unfortunately
even at the expense of damaging the world's ecosystem
aimed to provide. So, global warming is a real threat to future generations
form. Human activities are ultimately emitted by the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, spherical
It is the biggest cause of heat. Production and transport are two major sources of carbon dioxide emissions
although the construction sector plays an important role in this issue. Building and
construction work, global resource use after today's energy production and pollution
they have the largest share in the spread. Urban population worldwide is one million every week
Considering the fact that people are increasing, sustainable and / or environmentalist construction
it becomes very important. By reducing environmental impact throughout the lifespan of structures such as sustainable (environmental) construction, housing, work environment and infrastructure,
aims to meet the needs of the organization.

Steel is one of the most sustainable (environmentalist) materials on earth. Since the early 1990s, the steel industry has reduced the amount of energy it uses to produce a ton of steel in about a third. 95% of the water used in the steel production process is recycled. Every piece of steel used in construction has a recyclable content. Moreover, steel can be recovered and recycled into new high quality products. Steel structures require less material to carry the same amount of load carried by reinforced concrete, masonry and timber structures. In this context, the use of structures with a steel carrier system is increasing in the construction sector. The use of structures with steel carrier systems in the construction industry helps designers achieve sustainable (environmental) standards at the highest level. Beyond that, the use of steel constructions reduces the amount of waste generated in the buildings to a minimum. This is in fact due to the fact that preliminary engineering and preparation of almost all the construction project is done by using modern and efficient technology and the building members and panels are prepared in workshops and factories and then transported to the construction site and assembled. As a result, buildings constructed using steel carrier elements can be used to build sustainable (environmentally friendly) buildings that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

Asst. Assoc. Dr. Serdar ÇARBAŞ
Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University,
Engineering faculty,
Civil engineering Department,
Dept of Building Anabilim
Karaman Turkey